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CEVİZ DE ETHEPHON UYGULAMASI HASAT VAKTİ


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İletiTarih: 31 May Pzr, 2015 10:18 am    İleti konusu: CEVİZ DE ETHEPHON UYGULAMASI HASAT VAKTİ Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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Tarih: 31 May Pzr, 2015 10:18 am    İleti konusu: CEVİZ DE ETHEPHON UYGULAMASI HASAT VAKTİ

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İletiTarih: 31 May Pzr, 2015 10:22 am    İleti konusu: Re: CEVİZ DE ETHEPHON UYGULAMASI Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

http://www.hektas.com.tr/urundetay/Derim-Extra-48-SL/182
http://www.hektas.com.tr/uploads/urundosyalar/829239407.pdf
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İletiTarih: 31 May Pzr, 2015 10:28 am    İleti konusu: Re: CEVİZ DE ETHEPHON UYGULAMASI Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

http://cekings.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Nut_Crops39678.pdf
Ethephon nedir? Ayrıca Ethrel® olarak da bilinen etefon, bir etilen-bazlı bitki büyüme
regülatör gövde çatlama ve hızlandırır, hangi kısa bir süre sonra ceviz vade uygulanan, ya da
Kabuk ayırma. Bu bağlı 4-7 gün ceviz hasat gelişmeler
mevsim ve çeşitli ve somun değeri hafif çekirdek renk ve muhtemelen daha az böcek artar
hasar. Etefon performans deneyimi ile geliştirir. Doğru uygulama ve zamanlama
Başarılı bir yanıt için çok önemlidir.

The Science (and Art) of Ethephon Use on Walnut
Robert Beede, University of California Farm Advisor
Kings County
Note: Spring temperatures were cold enough to delay walnut maturity similar to last season.
Processors are therefore anxious to receive as much product as soon as possible to refill
inventory and meet European export scheduling deadlines. Many are offering financial
incentives to obtain new crop at the earliest date. These conditions cause growers to consider
using ethephon to accelerate harvest. The following newsletter outlines the pros and cons.
What is Ethephon? Ethephon, also known as Ethrel®, is an ethylene-based plant growth
regulator applied at walnut maturity, or shortly thereafter, which accelerates hull cracking and
separation from the shell. This advances walnut harvest by four to seven days, depending on the
season and variety, and nut value is increased by lighter kernel color and possibly less insect
damage. The performance of ethephon improves with experience. Proper application and timing
are essential for a successful response.
When are walnuts mature? Walnut kernels are physiologically mature well ahead of their
natural drop from the tree. Kernels achieve maximum oil accumulation when the packing tissue
surrounding the kernel has changed from a bright white to the color of oak. This is commonly
referred to as Packing Tissue Brown (PTB). The nuts in figure 1 are NOT at PTB, including the
top nut, which still has flecks of white dispersed among the packing tissue. It is two to three
days away from being uniformly oak colored. The nuts in figure 2 ARE at PTB. DO NOT
TREAT UNTIL ALL THE NUTS YOU CUT ARE AT THIS STAGE!! The packing tissue
continues to darken to a mahogany color as the nut ages. Kernel maturity often occurs 21 or
more days ahead of unaided commercial harvest (at least 80% removal with 10% or less
sticktights). During this period, the green hull tissue surrounding the nut undergoes separation of
its vascular tissue from the nut, and the hull also cracks from tissue breakdown and moisture
absorption. Unfortunately, the kernel also ages, resulting in darker, less valuable nuts. The risk
of insect damage, principally from navel orangeworm, also increases due to longer exposure to
the last generations of the season.
Figure 1. Immature walnuts Figure 2. Mature and ready for treatment Is
Ethephon right for me? Perhaps not. Users must commit to monitoring the orchard once or
twice weekly for PTB, applying the product at night or early morning to avoid temperatures
approaching 900
F, and then have control over harvest timing to take advantage of the
accelerated maturity. Your dehydrator must also be open and prepared to process your nuts
promptly to further minimize quality losses.
How do I time treatment? Three years research in Kings County shows PTB occurs last in
the bottom of the canopy, and that fully shaded walnut canopies have greater maturity
variability than those with full sunlight. Orchards deficit irrigated or stressed from low
water infiltration also develop PTB sooner than well watered orchards. Early walnut
varieties such as Serr develop PTB sooner (mid-August) than late varieties such as Chandler
(mid-September). Begin sampling at least two weeks ahead of when PTB is expected. Walk
diagonally across the orchard and collect at least 100 nuts. Do not include nuts obviously
advanced in maturity, since they are often oil-less and atypical. Cut each collected nut in
half. This is often done by insertion of a knife blade into the stem end of the nut, followed by a
twisting of the blade to split the nut down its suture. Care must be taken to prevent the sudden
loss of resistance to the knife blade, with subsequent puncture of your hand palm! Wear leather
gloves over latex ones to reduce the risk of injury and severe hand staining from the hull tissue.
Place one half of each nut into either a “yes” or “no” group for PTB. Only nuts with complete
browning of the packing tissue, including the area near the stem end, qualify for the “yes”
group. It is better to be two days late in application than two days early, since losses in
weight, nut quality, and hullability result from early ethephon application! Application
delayed five to seven days after PTB improves percent nut removal and the chances of having to
only harvest once. Consider crop load, weather, and variety susceptibility to darkening in
electing this option.
PTB IN SERR WILL NOT OCCUR UNTIL ABOUT AUGUST 23 IN KINGS COUNTY!
WE ARE LATE THIS YEAR!! DO NOT TREAT TOO EARLY!wykrzyknik! Do all walnut varieties respond similarly? No, research in Kings County suggests walnut
cultivars differ in their sensitivity to ethephon. Laboratory testing of Serr, Payne, Tulare, and
Chandler suggests that Serr produces the least amount of ethylene after treatment of these four
varieties, and Tulare the most. This agrees with field experience in the Southern San Joaquin
Valley, where Serr is often marginal in response, and Tulare falls off the tree shortly after
treatment. Growers report Howard is also very responsive to ethephon in Northern California,
resulting in greatly enhanced quality and value. The responsiveness of Tulare in the South has
now made it a standard cultural practice. Collaborative research with the UC Davis Plant
Sciences Department suggests that the lower ethylene production from treated Serr walnuts is
possibly due to less absorption into the hull, which has smaller pore spaces than the highly
responsive Payne variety. We are experimenting with adjuvants to test the absorption/improved
performance hypothesis. Thus far, the organosilicones did NOT improve ethephon activity!
What about treating stressed orchards? . Growers treat stressed orchards at their own risk.
Walnut stress typically arises from under or over irrigation and heavy mite infestation. Stressed
orchards can experience more leaf drop prior to and after harvest. Excessive leaf drop can vastly
complicate harvest, especially in the event of rain. Remember, quality does not begin at harvest,
and ethephon is an aid, not a panacea for all the quality related problems experienced during the
season.
How do I apply it? Only ground application with large self-propelled speed sprayers is
recommended in the South. Four to five pints of product are added to 150-200 gpa, with ground
speeds between 1.5 and 2 mph, depending upon canopy size. Ethephon does not translocate!
It MUST hit the nut to create the desired response! Experience shows greater response
under higher humidity and lower temperatures. Never exceed 900
F. Do not apply when
drying winds, typical in the North, prevail. Ethephon is rainfast within six hours of
treatment. Like all plant growth regulators, application conditions which improve
absorption time increase product performance. Reports from northern California growers
suggest weather conditions are favorable for effective aerial applications on responsive varieties
such as Howard, Hartley and Vina. Growers and northern California county Ag Commissioners
report aerial use rates of two to four pints in 40 gpa. Aerial application and ethephon
concentrations greater than those recommended for ground treatment (900 ppm) are allowed by
the label, BUT they are not supported by the manufacturers. Rates higher than recommended
may result in tree injury, such as excessive defoliation, reduced catkin formation and twig
dieback. All risks for air application with higher concentrations are assumed by the
grower. Check with your crop consultant for a local recommendation.
Does Ethephon pay? Research documents improved nut value of five cents per pound,
principally due to lighter kernel color. However, greater value increases may be experienced
commercially under heavy navel orangeworm pressure, or with varieties prone to rapid kernel
darkening. Growers in the North report improved Howard value of nine to 12 cents. Control
over harvest timing is also an advantage to which a price cannot be assigned. HAPPY
FARMING!

http://cekings.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Nut_Crops39678.pdf
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İletiTarih: 31 May Pzr, 2015 10:30 am    İleti konusu: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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1 HASAT İÇİN OLGUNLAŞMAMIŞ
2 HASAT VAKTİ GELMİŞ
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İletiTarih: 06 Haz Pts, 2016 5:39 pm    İleti konusu: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

What is Ethephon?
Ethephon, also known as Ethrel®, is an ethylene-based plant growth regulator applied at walnut maturity, or shortly thereafter, which accelerates hull cracking and separation from the shell. This advances walnut harvest by four to seven days, depending on the season and variety, and nut value is increased by lighter kernel color and possibly less insect damage. Treating only some blocks of the same variety can spread harvest timing and drying into more manageable allotments. Proper application and timing are essential for a successful response.

When are walnuts mature?

Immature walnuts
Figure 1. Immature walnuts. Photo: R. Beede
Mature and ready for treatment
Figure 2. Mature and ready for treatment. Photo: R. Beede
Walnut kernels are physiologically mature well ahead of their natural drop from the tree, when the tissue surrounding the kernel has changed from a bright white to oak colored, commonly referred to as Packing Tissue Brown (PTB) (see Fig 1 & 2).

Kernel maturity often occurs 21 or more days ahead of unaided commercial harvest. During this period, the hull separates from the shell and cracks from tissue breakdown and moisture absorption. In this time, the kernel also

ages, resulting in darker, less valuable nuts. The risk of insect damage, principally from navel orangeworm, can also increase.



Is Ethephon right for me?
Perhaps not. Users must monitor once or twice weekly for PTB, applying the product at night or early morning to avoid temperatures approaching 900 F, and have control over harvest timing. Your dehydrator must also be open and prepared to process your early nuts promptly. Additional, orchards stressed from under or over irrigation, heavy mite infestation or the yellow Howard problem may see more leaf drop prior to and after harvest, complicating harvest.

How do I time treatment?
PTB occurs last in the bottom of the canopy. Fully shaded canopies have greater maturity variability than those with full sunlight. Water stressed orchards develop PTB sooner than well watered orchards. Early walnut varieties such as Serr develop PTB sooner (mid-August) than late varieties such as Chandler (mid-September).

Begin sampling at least two weeks ahead of when PTB is expected. Walk diagonally across the orchard and collect at least 100 nuts. Cut each collected nut in half. Only nuts with complete browning of the packing tissue, including the area near the stem end, are considered at full PTB. Do not treat until 95-100% of nuts are at PTB. It is better to apply late than early, since early ethephon application results in losses in weight, nut quality, and hullability. Apply five to seven days after PTB still improves percent nut removal and the chances of having to only harvest once.

Do all walnut varieties respond similarly?
Walnut cultivars differ in their sensitivity to ethephon. Out of Serr, Payne, Tulare, and Chandler, Serr produces the least ethylene after treatment and shows a marginal response in the field. Tulare produces the most and falls off the tree shortly after treatment. Growers report Howard is also very responsive to ethephon in Northern California, resulting in greatly enhanced quality and value.

How do I apply it?
In the Sacramento Valley, ethephon can be applied from the ground or aerially. For ground application, four to five pints of product are added to 150-200 gpa, with ground speeds between 1.5 and 2 mph, depending upon canopy size. Ethephon does not translocate. It must hit the nut to create the desired response. Experience shows greater response under higher humidity and lower temperatures. Never exceed 900 F. Performance improves with increased absorption time, so do not apply if there are drying winds or rain forecasted.

For aerial application, aerial use rates of two to four pints in 40 gpa have been reported. Aerial application and ethephon concentrations greater than those recommended for ground treatment (900 ppm) are allowed by the label, but not supported by the manufacturers. Rates higher than recommended may result in excessive defoliation, reduced catkin formation and twig dieback. The benefits of ethephon application are usually seen 14 to 23 days after application. Test shake a tree and evaluate hull adhesion before committing to harvest.

Adapted from the articles “The Science (and Art) of Ethephon Use on Walnut” by Robert Beede, UCCE Farm Advisor Emeritus, Kings County and “Ethephon use considerations in the Sacramento Valley” by Janine Hasey, UCCE Farm Advisor, Sutter, Yuba, and Colusa Counties
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