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Erschoviella musculana - Garella musculana


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Tarih: 21 Arl Cum, 2018 6:59 pm    İleti konusu: Re: Erschoviella musculana

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İletiTarih: 21 Oca Pts, 2019 5:29 pm    İleti konusu: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ERSHMU/distribution/BG
Distribution details in Bulgaria
Situation
Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2018: Present, restricted distribution
First recorded in: 2016
Comments
a single specimen was first observed in 2016 in September 2016 at the Byala Beach Resort (Varna province). In June 2018, more specimens were caught in light traps in Botevo (Varna province).
References
* Beaumont HE (2018) The occurrence of Garella musculana (Erschov, 1874) (Lep.: Nolidae) in eastern Bulgaria. Entomologist’s Records and Journal of Variation 130(6), 315-316.
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FOTOGRAF:
Yafes YILDIZ , İbrahim YILDIRIM , Cengiz BOSTANCI , Onur AYDOĞAN
TURKEY/BARTIN
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ERSHMU/photos
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İletiTarih: 02 Mar Cmt, 2019 8:42 pm    İleti konusu: Re: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

Distribution details in Bulgaria
Situation
Current pest situation evaluated by EPPO on the basis of information dated 2018: Present, restricted distribution
First recorded in: 2016
Comments
EPPO Reporting Service (2019/010) : a single specimen was first observed in 2016 in September 2016 at the Byala Beach Resort (Varna province). In June 2018, more specimens were caught in light traps in Botevo (Varna province).
References
* Beaumont HE (2018) The occurrence of Garella musculana (Erschov, 1874) (Lep.: Nolidae) in eastern Bulgaria. Entomologist’s Records and Journal of Variation 130(6), 315-316.
Situation in neighbouring countries
Country State Status
Turkey Present, restricted distribution
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ERSHMU/distribution/BG
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İletiTarih: 02 Mar Cmt, 2019 9:03 pm    İleti konusu: Re: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

http://www.aloki.hu/pdf/1702_34273431.pdf
Yildiz – Ayberk: The first parasitoid record of Garella musculana from Turkey; Pimpla spuria
- 3427 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 17(2):3427-3431.
http://www.aloki.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ● ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_34273431
 2019, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
THE FIRST PARASITOID RECORD OF GARELLA MUSCULANA
(NOLIDAE, LEPIDOPTERA) FROM TURKEY; PIMPLA SPURIA
(ICHNEUMONIDAE, HYMENOPTERA)
YILDIZ, Y.1* – AYBERK, H.2
1Department of Forest Entomology and Protection, Faculty of Forestry, Bartın University
74100 Bartın, Turkey
(phone: +90-378-223-5164; fax: +90-378-223-5066)
2Department of Forest Entomology and Protection, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul UniversityCerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
*Corresponding author
e-mail: yafesyildiz@hotmail.com
(Received 26th Dec 2018; accepted 14th Feb 2019)
Abstract. This research was conducted within the border of Bartın province between the years of 2015-
2018 for making detailed research on the biology of the important walnut pest Garella musculana
identified for the first time in Turkey. The pupas collected from the study area were brought to the
laboratory and monitored. It was observed that some pupas were parasitic, and the type of parasitic
species that emerged from these pupae was also recorded and the species were diagnosed. As a result of
the diagnosis, the parasitoid species were identified as Pimpla spuria (Gravenhorst, 1829). This was the
first parasitoid recorded on Garella musculana in Turkey. This situation should be helpful of biological
control on Garella musculana in walnut orchards.
Keywords: Garella musculana, walnut, Pimpla spuria, parasitoid, first record, Turkey
Introduction
Walnut (Juglans regia), an income-generating species, has a large distribution area
and is a very old and important fruit of Turkey. Turkey’s walnut production is the fourth
in the world (FAO, 2016). Garella musculana, one of the important pests of the walnut
plant, was determined for the first time in Turkey in the studies carried out in Bartın
province in 2015.
Garella musculana is one of the most important pests of walnut fruit and young
shoots in infected countries. Larvae damage fruit as a result of nutrition, and usually
there are 1 larvae in the fruit, while sometimes 2 and rarely 3 larvae have been
observed. In fruit, larvae are only nourished in the green shell (pericarp). As a result of
the damage of larvae, fruits become deformed and there is no normal fruit development.
As a result of the damage of the species 70-80% yield decrease can occur in the nuts. In
addition to the loss of product in Walnut, this insect can cause seed distress for
regeneration of natural Juglans regia forests. In the years of low fruit production, larval
nutrition in shoots causes the death of shoots and this is usually a more serious danger
for young trees (Orozumbekov and Moore, 2007).
One of the reasons for the rapid spread of invasive species in the area where they
first infect is the absence of natural enemies. Therefore, in this study we tried to
determine the natural enemies of Garella musculana in Bartın province
Yildiz – Ayberk: The first parasitoid record of Garella musculana from Turkey; Pimpla spuria
- 3428 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 17(2):3427-3431.
http://www.aloki.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ● ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_34273431
 2019, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
larvae. Especially Pimpla (F.) species belonging to the type of polyphagous pests many
species under pressure has been recorded. Borror et al. (1981) indicate that species
belonging to the Ichneumonidae family have a large host distribution.
Ichneumonids, as hosts, use a range of insects and arachnids can play an important
role in the normal functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. They were also successfully
used as biocontrol agents (Gupta, 1991).
Ichneumonidae species are present as internal and external parasites in larvae and
pupae of species belonging to Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Oğurlu,
2000).
In this study conducted between the years of 2015-2018, parasitoid species of
Garella musculana were investigated and Pimpla spuria was determined as the first
parasitoid record for the related pest which can be used as a biological control agent.
Materials and methods
In Bartın province, in order to carry out detailed studies about pest, pupas under the
bark (Fig. 1) from the study areas of different localities such as Karasu, Akıncılar were
brought to the laboratory and monitored after the adult exits. Preparation of the
parasitoid species derived from some parasitoid pupas was made and photographed
under microscope and sent to the diagnosis and species was identified.
Figure 1. Pupae cocoons of Garella musculana
Results and discussion
In this study, parasitoid species Pimpla spuria (F.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)
was obtained from pupae cocoons of Garella musculuna. This parasitoid is reported for
the first time on G. musculuna (Fig. 2).
Pimpla spuria is a common species that is widely distributed in the
Holarctic/Palaearctic and Oriental regions (Kolarov et al., 2014). In Turkey, this
parasitoid has been identified in Adana, Adıyaman, Ankara, Afyon, Artvin, Balıkesir,
Bilecik, Burdur, Bursa, Çanakkale Denizli, Edirne, Erzincan, Erzurum, Gaziantep,
Giresun, Hatay, Isparta, Mersin, Istanbul, Kars, Kırklareli, Kocaeli, Konya, Manisa,
Muğla, Rize, Şanlıurfa, Tekirdağ, Tunceli, Trabzon, Uşak and Yalova so far (Konca,
2015; Çoruh et al., 2014; Kolarov et al., 2014; Coruh and Kolarov, 2010). This is the
first time Bartın has been added to its distribution area.
Yildiz – Ayberk: The first parasitoid record of Garella musculana from Turkey; Pimpla spuria
- 3429 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 17(2):3427-3431.
http://www.aloki.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ● ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_34273431
 2019, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
Figure 2. Pimpla spuria. a General view of adult, b wings, c antenna, d head
As the hosts of Pimpla spuria; Ostrinia nubillis (Özdemir, 1981) and Lobesia
botrana (Özdemir and Kılınçer, 1990) were recorded in Turkey. Aslan (2015) identified
Pimpla spuria as the most densest species in a study of Lobesia botrana parasitoids that
harmful in vineyards in Gaziantep province.
Yurtcan and Beyarslan (2005) identified 21 species of Pimpline and Polysphinctinini
(Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplexae) in the Trakya region and Pimpla
implemporator (Müller, 1776) and P. spuria (Gravenhorst, 1829) as the most common
species.
Aydoğdu (2014) P. spuria has been detected as parasitoid of Archips rosana (L.,
1758) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in organic cherry orchards the first time. And also, in
the cherry orchards of Sultandağı Basin, including Pimpla spuria, 30 species from the
Ichneumonidae family were identified (Özdemir and Güler, 2009).
Pimpla spuria was identified as pupa parasitoid of Sesamia nonagrioides
(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in Cukurova region. At the same time, Oztemiz et al. (2004)
reported as pupa parasitoid of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) and
Ostrinia nubilaris (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) of the same species.
In Bulgaria, Pimpla spuria (Gravenhorst, 1829) was identified as parasitoid of Cydia
pomonella and Grapholita funebrana species. Grapholita funebrana was given to the
new host of P. spuria (Velcheva and Atanassov, 2016).
The natural enemies of G. musculana can play an important role in regulating its
populations. Sixteen species of parasitoids and predators belonging to Ichneumonidae,
Braconidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichomammatidae, Carabidae, Raphididae and
Formicidae are recorded as G. musculana. The most common of these, Trichogramma
a b
c d
Yildiz – Ayberk: The first parasitoid record of Garella musculana from Turkey; Pimpla spuria
- 3430 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 17(2):3427-3431.
http://www.aloki.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ● ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_34273431
 2019, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
sp. and Pimpla instigator. Sometimes, caterpillars are infected by bacteria Bacillus
thuringiensis or fungi Beauveria bassiana (Degtyareva, 1964; Dzhaparov, 1990).
Conclusion
Garella musculana which is harmful to walnut trees causes severe damage and
brings about economic loss since first detected in Turkey. In order to control G.
musculana, added to the A2 list in 2003 by the European and Mediterranean Plant
Protection Organization (EPPO), some biological control methods are investigated
against this pest. In our study conducted within the border of Bartın Province; it was
observed that some pupas collected from the study areas were parasitic. As a result of
the diagnosis, the parasitoid species were identified as Pimpla spuria. The importance
of this identifying is; P. spuria was the first parasitoid recorded on Garella musculana
in Turkey.
The abundance and effectiveness of Pimpla spuria’s host diversity is thought to play
an active role in control of the important walnut pest Garella musculana.
Acknowledgements. We are thankful to Oleksandr Varga for the identification of this Ichneumonidae
species.
REFERENCES
[1] Aydoğdu, M. (2014): Parasitoid abundance of Archips rosana (Linnaeus, 1758)
(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in organic cherry orchards. – North-Western Journal of
Zoology 10(1): 42-47.
[2] Borror, D. J., De Long, D. M., Triplehorn, C. A. (1981): An Introduction to the Study of
Insects. – Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, USA.
[3] Coruh, S., Kolarov, J. (2010): Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) from Northeastern Turkey.
I. – Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 3: 177-186.
[4] Çoruh, S., Kolarov, J., Çoruh, İ. (2014): Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) from Anatolia. –
II. Turkish Journal of Entomology 38(3): 279-290.
[5] Degtyareva, V. I. (1964): The Main Lepidopteran Pests of Trees and Shrubs of the
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Tadzhikskoi SSR, Dushanbe (TJ) (in Russian).
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Sankt-Peterburg, Russia (in Russian).
[7] FAO (2016): http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize.
[8] Gupta, V. K. (1991): The parasitic Hymenoptera and biological control of the African
Ichneumonidae. – Insect Science and its Application 12(1-3): 9-18.
[9] Kolarov, J., Yıldırım, E., Çoruh, S., Yüksel, M. (2014): Contribution to the knowledge of
the Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) fauna of Turkey. – Zoology in the Middle East 60(2):
154-161.
[10] Konca, Ö. (2015): Edirne’de farklı iki habitatta Pimplinae (Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae) türlerinin tespiti, aylık ve mevsimsel değişimleri. – T. C. Trakya
Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Yüksek Lisans tezi.
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botrana (Denis et Schiffermuller) in the vineyards where conventional and mating
disruption techniques are applied. – Agricultural Journal 10: 1-6.
Yildiz – Ayberk: The first parasitoid record of Garella musculana from Turkey; Pimpla spuria
- 3431 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 17(2):3427-3431.
http://www.aloki.hu ● ISSN 1589 1623 (Print) ● ISSN 1785 0037 (Online)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_34273431
 2019, ALÖKI Kft., Budapest, Hungary
[12] Ogurlu, İ. (2000): Biological Control. – Suleyman Demirel University Publications no. 8,
Isparta (in Turkish).
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Resources Development Service, Forestry Department, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nation, Rome, Italy.
[14] Ozdemir, N. (1981): Karadeniz Bölgesi Mısırlarında Zarar Yapan Mısır Kurdu (Ostrinia
nubilalis HB., Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)’nun Biyoekolojisi Üzerinde Araştırmalar
[Investigations on bioecology of Ostrinia nubilalis HB., Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, a pest of
corn growing in Black Sea region]. – Samsun Bolgesi Zirai Mucadele Arastirma
Enstitusu Mudurlugu, Arastirma Eserleri, Seri no: 26 (in Turkish).
[15] Özdemir, Y., Güler, Y. (2009): Sultandağı Havzası kiraz bahçelerinde tespit edilen
Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) türleri. – Bitki Koruma Bülteni 49(3): 135-143.
[16] Özdemir, Y., Kılınçer, N. (1990): İç Anadolu Bölgesinde Saptanan Pimplinae ve
Ophioninae (Hym.: Ich.) Türleri. [The species of Pimplinae and Ophioninae from Central
Anatolia]. – Turkiye 2. Biyolojik Mucadele Kongresi, 29. Eylul. 1990 [2nd Biological
Control Congress in Turkey], Ankara, pp. 309-318 (in Turkish).
[17] Öztemiz, S., Göven, M. A., Güllü, M., Tatlı, F., Üremiş, İ., Çetin, V., Aksoy, E., Bülbül,
Z. F. (2004): Mısır Entegre Mücadele Teknik Talimatı. – T. C. Tarım ve Köyişleri
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Başkanlığı, Ankara.
[18] Sertkaya, E., Kornoşor, S. (2000): Çukurova’da Mısır Koçankurdu, Sesamia
nonagrioides Lef. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Doğal Düşmanları. – Türkiye 4.
Entomoloji Kongresi, 12-15 Eylül, Aydın, pp. 339-348.
[19] Townes, H. K., Momoi, S., Townes, M. (1965): A Catalogue and Reclassification of the
Eastern Palearctic Ichneumonidae. – Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 5.
The American Entomological Institute, Gainesville, FL.
[20] Velcheva, N., Atanassov, A. (2016): Species diversity of parasitods reared from codling
moth, Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758) and plum fruit moth, Grapholita funebrana
(Treitschke, 1835) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Bulgaria. – Bulg. J. Agric. Sci. 22: 272-
277.
[21] Yıldız, Y., Yıldırım, İ., Bostancı, C., Aydoğan, O. (2018): Erschoviella musculana
Erschoff 1874, Türkiye Faunası İçin Yeni Bir Tür ve Yeni Bir Ceviz Zararlısı. – Bartın
Orman Fakültesi Dergisi 20(2): 296-302.
[22] Yurtcan, M., Beyarslan, A. (2005): Polysphinctini and Pimplini (Hymenoptera:
Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae) from the Thrace region of Turkey II. – Fragmenta Faunistica
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