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İletiTarih: 06 Haz Sal, 2017 9:19 pm    İleti konusu: Re: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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İletiTarih: 06 Mar Sal, 2018 6:50 pm    İleti konusu: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

Preparing Young Walnut Trees for Winter Katherine Pope, UCCE Farm Advisor, Sacramento, Solano and Yolo Counties You’ve spent all year pushing your new walnut trees to grow. September is the time to get them to stop growing and harden off before we experience freezing temperatures. It’s tempting to push growth as long as possible, but that’s risky. In severe cases of freeze damage, young trees can die back almost to the roots. Vigorous young trees are more vulnerable to freeze damage than older trees. Fully dormant walnut trees can withstand temperatures well below freezing. The damage occurs when temperatures drop to 28o F or below before the trees have experienced a few nights near 32o F to become acclimated. Trees can be managed to encourage cold hardiness by following these key steps: 1) Don’t apply nitrogen fertilizer past August. This avoids encouraging new, tender growth. 2) Withhold irrigation during September until a terminal vegetative bud sets on the trunk. 3) Consider painting with diluted white latex (50% water) if a frost occurs. 4) Delay pruning young trees until March after the threat of frosts have passed. Water management is perhaps the most critical step. To encourage terminal bud set, avoid irrigating in September until growth at the tips of the branches has stopped. Hold off on water until you stop seeing new growth and red leaves. But don’t stress trees to the point of yellowing leaves and defoliation. Once growth has stopped, resume irrigating in October if there is no rainfall. Make sure soil is moist before the possibility of a November freeze event. In addition to water management, painting young trunks white can help minimize freeze damage, especially if applied as soon as possible after a freeze. Wilbur Reil, Farm Advisor Emeritus, found that when trees were painted a week after a freeze event 18% showed damage, compared with 46% damaged in the unpainted trees. Painting any parts that may be damaged should improve recovery; however, if time is limited focus on the south-west side. This side experiences the most day-to-night temperature fluctuations after sunny winter days and is most susceptible to sunburn, which worsens frost damage. To know if you have freeze damage, look for darkened cambial tissue below the bark (Figure 1). Symptoms resemble sunburn. It’s most likely to be found on the south and west side of the tree, especially on horizontal branches. Figure 1. Darkened cambial tissue damaged by frost. Note, the damage occurred on this tree before the trunk was painted. Photo, 4/94 by J. Hasey.
http://cesutter.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Sacramento_Valley_Walnut_News58889.pdf
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İletiTarih: 06 Mar Sal, 2018 6:54 pm    İleti konusu: Re: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

Winter Freeze Damage - Spring Recovery
Joe Connell, Carolyn DeBuse, Janine Hasey, Farm Advisors, Butte, Yolo-Solano, and Sutter-Yuba Counties
Cold temperatures from November 13 to December 6, 2009 should have been sufficient to harden off
most walnut trees. Winter kill on young dormant walnuts usually occurs following extremely low
temperatures when trees are water stressed or if vigorous trees are not fully hardened off. The low
temperature on December 8, 2009 was close to 20o
F (plus or minus a couple of degrees) in many
locations.
5 Sacramento Valley Walnut News
Symptoms of damage include darkening bark and streaks of grey on the inner wood. Young walnut
orchards, especially those with low soil moisture, should be examined for freeze damaged cambium tissue
that is discolored and dry (Figure 1). This spring, buds may be slow to break or may fail to break
altogether. In cases where branches or the young trunk dies, winter kill acts as severe pruning and
vigorous shoots grow from below the damaged area. Sunburn often accompanies the cold damage
increasing the amount of injury. Sunburn can occur during the winter months on damaged tissue
especially on the southwest side on unpainted trunks or limbs (Figure 2). Additional winter kill photos can
be accessed at
http://cesutter.ucdavis.edu/Orchard_Crops/Walnut_damage_from_winter_kill_or_autumn_frosts.htm.
If you suspect cold damage, do NOT prune out the damaged limbs. Buds may be slow in opening or buds
from deep in the bark may grow to rejuvenate the limb. In the late summer, prune out dead wood that did
not revive. New scaffolds that grew can be trained to replace the damaged wood. Reduce or delay spring
fertilizer applications where cold damage is evident.

Figure 2. 1-year old Chandler painted
white after December 1990 freeze.
Damage (no upper shoots) on southwest
side of tree. Photo, 5/91 by J. Hasey.
Figure 1. Walnut freeze damaged
wood is discolored and dry. Photo,
4/94 by J. Hasey.

Spring Frost?
Joe Connell, Janine Hasey, Farm Advisors, Butte and Sutter-Yuba Counties
Radiation frosts occur when skies are clear, winds are calm, and humidity is low. As heat is radiated to
the sky the existing air mass cools and shoots, leaves, and nutlets radiate (lose heat) to the cold night sky.
Exposed tissues are the most likely to be damaged during a frost night. Shoots, leaves, and nutlets on the
top sides of limbs may be injured while tissues underneath a limb or protected by dense foliage may
escape injury.
6 Sacramento Valley Walnut News
Walnut flowers and small nutlets can be frozen when exposed to temperatures of 30o
F for only 30
minutes. Shoots, flowers, or small nutlets can be cut and examined to determine if the tissues appear
watersoaked or blackened to varying degrees. In contrast, healthy tissues will appear moist and bright
green inside when examined.
The probabilities of frosts are greater with early leafing varieties like Serr and Ashley. As later leafing
varieties such as Howard and Chandler begin growth the probability of frost continually declines. During
the April 20, 2008 radiation frost, the earliest leafing varieties had the least injury since they had more
leaf tissue providing protection when the frost occurred. Remain vigilant! To gauge the frost potential,
check the dew point temperature before retiring for the night. When the dew point is above 45o F, frost is
rarely a problem.
Dr. Rick Snyder, Cooperative Extension Biometeorologist makes the following observations on frost
protection:
• For weather forecasts, go to the National Weather Service Forecast Office website at
http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/sto , click on “Forecast Weather Stations” on left, set the interval in hours
and the duration in days, and enter your zip code or location. These forecasts are very helpful for
predicting autumn frosts, winter freeze and spring frost events.
• If the soil is dry, it should be wetted at least 3-5 days ahead of a freeze. If there is water on the soil
surface before a freeze, it will make the soil surface colder because of evaporative cooling. Water
conducts and stores more heat than air spaces, so wetting the soil 3-5 days prior to a frost night will
fill the air spaces and the soil will store more heat. You don't want water on the surface during the
frost night unless you keep re-wetting it with sprinklers or with continuous running furrows.
• Under tree sprinklers should be turned on before the wet-bulb temperature falls to the critical damage
temperature and turned off the next morning after the wet-bulb temperature goes above the damage
temperature. To be really safe, turn off the sprinklers when the wet-bulb temperature exceeds 32o
F.
For example, from Dr. Snyder’s website http://biomet.ucdavis.edu, click on “Frost Protection” and
then “When to turn the sprinklers on or off for frost protection”. Table 1, in that webpage article
indicates that with a wet-bulb temperature of 32o
F and a dew-point temperature of 25o
F, the sprinklers
should be turned off at an air temperature above 36o
F. If sprinklers are run all night, the temperature
of the wetted soil will normally stay around 32o
F, which is warmer than if the sprinklers are not
operated. This is true unless the application rate is really low or if the wind speed is high and the dewpoint
temperature is low.
• The website shows methods to measure the dew-point and to estimate the wet-bulb temperature and
has guidelines for the application rates. The application rate of the sprinklers becomes important as the
dew-point decreases and/or the wind speed increases because evaporation increases. The key to
beneficial application is whether or not the soil surface temperature is warmer with irrigation or
without irrigation. You can test that by placing minimum recording thermometers on dry and wetted
ground.
• Refer to Dr. Snyder’s website, for more detailed information on frost protection.
http://cesutter.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Spring_2010_Sacramento_Valley_Walnut_News36486.pdf
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İletiTarih: 06 May Pzr, 2018 5:46 pm    İleti konusu: Re: soğuk zararı Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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Frost damage to young walnuts.
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İletiTarih: 15 May Sal, 2018 7:24 pm    İleti konusu: Re: soğuk zararı Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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