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Budama verileri amerika



 
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İletiTarih: 07 Oca Çar, 2015 11:57 am    İleti konusu: Budama verileri amerika Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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Tarih: 07 Oca Çar, 2015 11:57 am    İleti konusu: Budama verileri amerika

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İletiTarih: 07 Oca Çar, 2015 12:15 pm    İleti konusu: Re: Budama verileri amerika Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

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İletiTarih: 28 Mar Cmt, 2015 8:52 pm    İleti konusu: Alıntıyla Cevap Gönder

Training young walnut trees occurs in the first 1 to 6 years
in the life of an orchard. Traditionally it has been done using
a modified central leader with a minimum pruning style; the
basics are similar for standard spaced or hedgerow
orchards. We believed for decades that if lateral bearing
walnuts were not pruned, their growth would stall out from
early cropping. Research conducted since 2004
investigating pruning versus non­pruning on young walnut
tree growth and productivity however, has challenged that
paradigm.
Results from trials on Howard and Chandler have shown
that young walnuts do not need to be pruned in order to
keep them growing or to produce adequate yields. In
general, unpruned trees have produced higher early yields
and equivalent yields in year 5 and beyond compared to
minimally pruned trees.
With more knowledge comes more complexity. Growers
now need to decide when trees are a year old (first dormant
pruning), whether to stick with the modified central leader
and train using minimum pruning or to not prune, which
saves on labor and brush disposal. Growers interested in
trying the unpruned method may want to start small and


http://www.growingproduce.com/nuts/training­young­walnut­trees/ 2/5
compare their results to the minimal pruning method to
make sure it fits their management system.
If you start with minimum pruning, we recommend that you
continue with the same method until the trees are mature.
Changing midstream from pruning to no pruning may lead to
limb breakage, especially if trees were heavily pruned, and
this leads to lower early yields and is not recommended.
Below are the main steps comparing training walnuts for
years 1 to 3 using the modified central leader with the
minimum pruning method to the unpruned training method.
The assumption is you are using a standard­spaced
orchard and differences for hedgerow systems are noted.
Always remove suckers from the rootstock.
Modified Central Leader With Minimum Pruning
Method
Pruning 1­year­old walnut trees:
• The shoot (leader) selected to be the trunk should have
reached a height of at least 7 to 8 feet. Ten feet or more of
growth is better (7 to 8 feet is sufficient for hedgerow
orchards).
• Heading the leader at 8 feet will give more area for the
scaffolds. The leader should not be headed any less than
6½ feet since the first primary scaffold should be at least
5½ to 6 feet above the ground so as not to interfere with
equipment operation (for orchards, hedgerow head at 6
feet, and the first primary should be about 4 feet above
ground). Make the heading cut into mature round wood.
• Any lateral shoots on the leader should be removed. One
or two nonvigorous shoots arising below the leader can be
stubbed to two to three buds to provide shade on the
southwest side and aid caliper growth. They will be
removed in the next dormant season.
• Primary buds above 5 feet from the ground that are
necked should be rubbed off to the side so as not to
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An unpruned tree on left (note short shoot growth on primary
branches) and a minimum pruned tree on right (note secondary
scaffold extension growth from heading cuts) at the end of the
third growing season.
(Photo Credit: Bruce Lampinen)
Irrigation
Nuts
Irrigation28.03.2015 How To Train Young Walnut Trees | Growing Produce
http://www.growingproduce.com/nuts/training­young­walnut­trees/ 3/5
damage the secondary bud. If left, necked buds form weak
limb attachments that are subject to breakage. The
secondary bud which is forced to grow will form a wide
angle and develop a strong crotch.
• If the shoot selected to be the trunk has not reached
sufficient height, cut it 3 to 6 buds above the point of origin
and remove competing shoots. A stronger shoot can then
be trained as the trunk over the summer.
Pruning 2­year­old standard­spaced walnut trees:
• The goal is to select four to six primary scaffolds arising
from the trunk in years two and three. Select the central
leader which is typically the topmost branch.
• As with the 1­year­old trees, the height of first primary
scaffold should be 5.5 to 6 feet above ground.
• Select other primary scaffolds to form a spiral pattern
around the trunk. Space them at least 8 inches apart.
Primary scaffolds should never originate directly opposite
each other to prevent the leader from getting ‘choked out’.
• Selected scaffolds should be angled about 45 degrees
from the vertical. Limbs with narrower angles or bark
inclusions are usually poorly attached and cannot support
heavy crops. Branches with wider angles of attachment
may fail to grow vigorously.
• For most lateral­bearing varieties, head all primary
scaffolds to ¼ to ⅓ of current growth, depending on vigor
and variety. Tulare are very vigorous and need only tipping
or no heading of the scaffolds. The leader should be left the
longest.
• Remove forked branches on chosen scaffolds to a single
branch. Leave remaining unselected branches and small
caliper wood unheaded to create early fruiting wood.
Pruning 2­year­old hedgerow walnut trees:
• Select a central leader and two to four side limbs oriented
in opposite directions in the tree row.
• Remove branches below three feet that will interfere with
shaking and flat limbs that grow out into the middles.
• Depending on variety and vigor, selected framework limbs
should be headed or tipped (see above) and cut to an
outside bud facing into the tree row. Other branches can be
left unheaded to fruit early.
Pruning 3­year­old standard­spaced or hedgerow
walnut trees (Photo­ right tree):
• Choose the strongest, tallest scaffold for the leader and
head ¼ to ⅓ of the current growth. Strong secondary
scaffolds in a vertical position can be tipped or left
unheaded. Head or tip one strong secondary scaffold on
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Flowers
Food Safety28.03.2015 How To Train Young Walnut Trees | Growing Produce
http://www.growingproduce.com/nuts/training­young­walnut­trees/ 4/5
the canopy in each cardinal direction ¼ to ⅓ of the current
growth.
• Forked branches can be left but twisted, rubbing or
overlapping branches should be removed.
Unpruned Training Method
1­year­old walnut trees:
• The shoot (leader) selected to be the trunk should have
reached a height of at least 7 to 8 feet. Ten feet or more of
growth is better (7 to 8 feet is sufficient for hedgerow
orchards).
• Leave the leader selected as the trunk unheaded.
• Remove lower limbs below 4 to 5 feet (3 to 4 feet for
hedgerows).
• Place a long stake extension on existing stakes to
support the unpruned leader.
2­ and 3­year­old walnut trees:
• No pruning or heading unless lower branches need to be
removed for reasons of safety or ease of maintenance and
harvest.
• Note that unpruned walnuts tend to put on extension
growth in alternate years. Individual shoots follow a pattern
of extension growth, followed by side branching occurring
on shoot with 5 to 8 inches growth on the end (Photo – left
tree), followed by another year of extension growth.
• Unpruned trees tend to grow as a central leader with the
primary branches naturally well­spaced along the trunk and
at wide angles.
http://www.growingproduce.com/nuts/training-young-walnut-trees/
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